Saturday, October 27, 2012
Midterm Questions & Review
The Midterm will be posted on blackboard Monday. The deadline will be 11/5 at midnight, that should be enough time for anyone who has work or other conflicts to be able to take the exam. The format of the exam will be one essay question. You will have a choice of two questions. Once you begin the exam you have to complete it, so don't start it until you know you have time to complete it before the deadline.
The exam will consist of the following two questions, please read the directions carefully.
Choose three examples from either: painting (Expressionism, Dadaism, and New Objectivity), literature (Siddhartha), music (Cabaret), and film (Expressionism) and answer one of the following. Explain the content or the structure of the work in your answer:
1. How is authority undermined or reinforced in these cultural forms?
2. How is the sense of 'crisis' (political, economic, social) depicted in these cultural forms?
In a short time we have gone over a lot. We started off the class talking about the origins of the Nihilism as a concept and especially how this idea was taken over by the late 19th century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). We went over a few of his key ideas such as: ressentiment, ascetic morality,"God is dead," and his views on the Greeks, especially stressing their dual nature of being civilized and cruel at the same time. Nihilism refers to a sense of meaninglessness and disbelief and to a radical, often violent break with the past and traditional society which is believed to be constructed according to false principles. Many of you in your blogs focused on passages emphasizing Atheism or Nietzsche's hostility to Christianity and religion. Undoubtedly, Nietzsche believed that religion was the still foundation of European culture and by extension, Nietzsche became a critic of all of Western civilization.
What these ideas all have in common is they all relate to Nietzsche's overall worldview that European civilization by the late 19th century was suffering from a kind of "spiritual sickness," resulting from the "denial of life" that structures conventional morals and values. This has resulted in a sense of meaninglessness and emptiness in life that easily turns into pessimism, and this in turn breeds a violent reaction against those same forces.
In his research on the Greeks Nietzsche concluded that their way of life was superior in that it did not cause this kind of sickness. However, because they did not repress themselves as much as modern people do they had an unmistakable tendency for cruelty that would seem almost inhuman today. At the same time, this suggests that the values necessary to overcome nihilism might be more ruthless than conventional morality suggests. Either way violence seems inescapable. Still he thinks it is possible to create a new value system that would say "yes" to life, and such values will be created by a "superman." These ideas were also taken over by the Nazis. People are still trying to figure out if it is possible to say "yes" to life without being cruel to other people.
After explaining Nietzsche I tried to introduce some of the important historical events in German history and give you a sense of why I choose Germany as a country to study nihilism. I tried to emphasize how the history of the German state is fairly recent; that it had no tradition of democracy; and that it industrialized extremely fast compared to other nations. Nietzsche was writing in the period of time when the German Empire was still a new creation. As discussed more in the Luxemburg essay from this week, the creation of the German Empire also set into the motion the chain of events that culminated in World War I (1914-1918). It was during this war and after where the idea of nihilism began to have an impact upon the masses.
The first part of the class we looked at cultural depictions of nihilism which reflected social conditions in Germany from around the time of World War I to the 1930s. We looked at painting (expressionism, dadaism, and New Objectivity), literature (Siddhartha), music (cabaret), and film (expressionism).
Many of these pieces showed scenes of alienation and isolation; the effects of excessive self-control and repression; changing sexual norms; they also depicted scenes of violence and war; social and cultural decay; and suggested a sense of crisis just below the surface of society. We also looked at influential critics and thinkers who were beginning to write about mass culture and relate to contemporary mass movements and political conflict.
We have just begun the second part of the class where we are now looking at the same period of time from the point of view of politics instead of culture. Nihilism in politics is expressed as revolutionary politics aiming to destroy or transform completely the old structures of society. Both Communists and Fascists have been labeled as nihilistic movements, yet strangely both also claimed to have a solution for nihilism. The communists always had more popular support but the fascists ended up winning. In the process the Weimar Republic was destroyed because of extremists on both sides and because the majority of people were not motivated enough to try to save their government having no tradition and no habits of democratic government. However if it had not been for the Great Depression it is unlikely the Nazis would have even gotten near the popular support they needed to win.
This week I tried to focus only on the events that led to the destruction of the German Empire in 1918, the aftermath, and the failed revolution of 1919. A Communist uprising by the Spartacus (Spartakus) group was led by Rosa Luxemburg. Luxemburg herself tried to prevent the uprising believing they could not win but she was outvoted. She was one of the most influential Marxist theorists who advocated a non-authoritarian form of revolution that would not require a centralized bureaucratic party like the Communist Party but would also be revolutionary and not compromise itself with the status quo like the Social Democratic Party had done, but emphasize constant self-criticism.
The best way to review is to go over the lectures again and study the individual works that you will use in your answers. Any questions contact me.